Spread bets and CFDs are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage. 75.3% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading spread bets and CFDs with this provider. You should consider whether you understand how spread bets and CFDs work, and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money.


OTC Trading: What Over-the-Counter Means in the Financial World

Over-the-Counter (OTC) trading operates through a decentralised broker-dealer network rather than centralised exchanges such as the New York Stock Exchange.

This method of trading allows for the transaction of a variety of securities including stocks, bonds, and derivatives. Derivatives are financial contracts that derive value from underlying assets, which can encompass commodities as well as a wide range of other products. In fact, every contract/product that Pepperstone offers is a derivative.

Key Features of OTC Trading:

  1. Unlike formal exchanges, OTC markets lack physical locations and conduct transactions electronically, enhancing flexibility in trading operations.
  2. In OTC markets, dealers and market makers provide liquidity by quoting buy and sell prices for securities, playing a crucial role in the market's functionality.
  3. OTC markets facilitate the trading of diverse financial products such as bonds, currencies, derivatives, and structured products.
  4. Although less regulated than formal exchanges, U.S. OTC markets are overseen by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), ensuring a level of surveillance against market manipulation.
  5. OTC trading provides access to securities that might not be available on major exchanges, offering a spectrum of opportunities for different types of investors. However, decreased transparency and less stringent regulation may introduce heightened risks, such as potential counterparty default and liquidity concerns.

OTC markets are pivotal in the financial landscape, offering essential avenues for trading that accommodate a wide array of financial instruments and catering to a diverse investor base. They play a significant role in the financial ecosystem by facilitating capital access, managing risks, and enhancing market liquidity.

Key Participants in OTC Markets

Predominantly, the market consists of regulated broker-dealers and market makers who are pivotal in maintaining liquidity and setting prices for securities, currencies, and other financial products. These entities operate under strict oversight by regulatory bodies such as the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) in the United States, ensuring adherence to legal and ethical standards.

Furthermore, the spectrum of participants extends to institutional investors, including asset managers, hedge funds, pension funds, and insurance companies, who engage in OTC equity derivatives markets. These large-scale participants often dictate the flow and volume of transactions, leveraging their substantial capital and risk management expertise.

OTC Markets Group facilitates the electronic trading of OTC securities. This platform allows SEC-registered and FINRA-member broker-dealers to display bid and ask prices, enhancing the efficiency of trade executions. By offering a choice of counterparties and the best possible prices, OTC Markets Group plays an essential role in the accessibility and functionality of the OTC trading environment.

Collectively, these participants contribute to a robust and dynamic OTC market, where trades are executed based on bilateral negotiations, allowing for significant discretion over the terms of trade. This structure supports a diverse range of financial strategies and objectives, catering to both public and private entities engaged in the global financial ecosystem.

Types of Securities Traded OTC

  1. Bonds:
    Private and corporate bonds that may not meet the stringent requirements for listing on major exchanges are actively traded over-the-counter. This provides a crucial avenue for raising capital without the complexities of formal exchange listings.
  2. Derivatives:
    OTC derivatives are tailored contracts used for hedging risks or speculating on future movements of an underlying asset. These instruments are critical in managing financial risks and are customised to meet the specific needs of the parties involved.
  3. Currencies and Commodities:
    The OTC markets are pivotal for the trading of currencies and commodities, allowing for transactions that might not be possible on standard exchanges due to size, volume, or regulatory restrictions.

The flexibility and accessibility of OTC markets enable trading in securities that are unavailable or illiquid on formal exchanges, thus providing critical liquidity and opportunities.

However, the potential for slippage and the generally lower volume of trades compared to formal exchanges should be considered when engaging in OTC transactions.


Benefits of OTC Trading

  • Regulations and Expanded Listing Options
    OTC markets are characterised by fewer regulatory requirements, allowing a broader spectrum of companies to participate. This environment is particularly beneficial for entities that may not meet the stringent criteria required by major stock exchanges. By facilitating easier access to the financial markets, OTC trading supports the growth and visibility of smaller or emerging companies, providing them with vital capital-raising opportunities.
  • Flexibility and Accessibility
    One of the standout features of OTC trading is its operational flexibility. Unlike traditional exchanges, OTC transactions can occur 24/5, offering traders the convenience to operate beyond standard market hours. This around-the-clock trading capability ensures that market participants can react promptly to news and events that might affect their positions.
  • Customization and Tailored Solutions
    The OTC markets stand out for their ability to offer customised financial instruments and deals. Traders can negotiate terms directly with counterparties, creating agreements that precisely meet their specific financial goals and risk management requirements. This level of customization is rarely available in more regulated market environments.
  • Cost Efficiency and Privacy
    OTC trading often incurs lower costs compared to transactions made on formal exchanges. The absence of certain exchange fees makes it a cost-effective option for many traders. Additionally, the private nature of transactions ensures a higher degree of confidentiality, which is particularly valued by parties engaging in large or sensitive trades.

Risks Associated with OTC Trading

  • Counterparty Risk
    During financial turbulence, the risk that a counterparty defaults before completing their obligations in a trade becomes pronounced. This risk is exacerbated in OTC trading due to the lack of a centralised clearing system, placing more onus on the individual's risk assessment capabilities.
  • Regulatory Challenges and Fraud Risk
    The reduced regulatory oversight in OTC markets opens avenues for fraudulent activities such as pump and dump schemes. The absence of stringent disclosure requirements makes it difficult for investors to verify the authenticity and performance of the companies, increasing the susceptibility to fraud.
  • Information Asymmetry
    Investors in OTC markets often grapple with a lack of reliable information, as companies are not mandated to disclose as much information as those listed on formal exchanges. This paucity of data makes it challenging to make informed investment decisions and assess the true value of OTC securities.
  • Volatility and Speculative Risk
    OTC stocks are particularly vulnerable to volatile swings based on market and economic data releases. The speculative nature of many OTC securities heightens the risk of sudden and significant losses.
  • Challenges in Exiting Positions
    Securities traded over-the-counter may pose difficulties in selling due to their limited liquidity. Investors might find themselves unable to exit positions without incurring substantial losses, particularly if a significant market move occurs against their holdings.
  • Compliance and Financial Reporting
    When financial reporting standards aren't met, it can result in investing in companies that might later disclose financial uncertainties or inconsistencies in their reported data. This can erode investor trust and lead to financial losses. These risks underscore the necessity for thorough due diligence and a cautious approach when engaging in OTC trading. Investors should weigh the potential high returns against the equally possible substantial risks.

Regulatory Aspects of OTC Markets

In the U.S., the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) plays a pivotal role in overseeing the OTC markets, ensuring that broker-dealers adhere to the legal standards set forth. Alongside FINRA, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) exerts regulatory influence, mandating certain disclosure requirements and overseeing the trading practices within these markets.

FINRA and SEC Oversight

  1. Broker-dealers trading on OTC markets must comply with FINRA's stringent regulations, which are designed to maintain market integrity and protect investor interests.
  2. The SEC, in collaboration with FINRA, enforces securities laws, focusing on maintaining transparency and fairness in the trading of OTC securities.

OTC Markets Group and Market Standards

OTC Markets Group, which operates various tiers of OTC trading platforms such as OTCQX, OTCQB, and Pink Open Market, plays a crucial role in setting eligibility standards, which are influenced by SEC regulations. These platforms cater to different levels of companies, from those meeting high reporting standards on OTCQX to the less regulated Pink Open Market.

Global Regulatory Cooperation

The Regulatory Oversight Committee (ROC) and The Derivatives Service Bureau (DSB) exemplify global efforts to harmonise regulatory standards. These entities work towards improving the quality of financial data reporting and monitoring financial risks, thereby enhancing the overall stability of financial markets.

This regulatory environment ensures that while OTC markets offer flexibility and accessibility, they also operate within a framework that promotes market integrity and investor protection.


While OTC markets offer significant opportunities for speculative investments they also come with their set of challenges. The importance of thorough due diligence cannot be overstated, given the risks of volatility, exposure to fraud, and the complexities of exiting positions. As the financial landscape continues to evolve, so too will the role of OTC trading, promising opportunities and posing challenges for short-term traders and long-term investors alike.

The material provided here has not been prepared in accordance with legal requirements designed to promote the independence of investment research and as such is considered to be a marketing communication. Whilst it is not subject to any prohibition on dealing ahead of the dissemination of investment research we will not seek to take any advantage before providing it to our clients.

Pepperstone doesn’t represent that the material provided here is accurate, current or complete, and therefore shouldn’t be relied upon as such. The information, whether from a third party or not, isn’t to be considered as a recommendation; or an offer to buy or sell; or the solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any security, financial product or instrument; or to participate in any particular trading strategy. It does not take into account readers’ financial situation or investment objectives. We advise any readers of this content to seek their own advice. Without the approval of Pepperstone, reproduction or redistribution of this information isn’t permitted.