Spread bets and CFDs are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage. 75.3% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading spread bets and CFDs with this provider. You should consider whether you understand how spread bets and CFDs work, and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money.


Demystifying Commodity Trading Terms: A Comprehensive Guide

Zani Barrish
Financial Writer
23 Aug 2023
Are you a beginner in commodity trading, seeking to understand the complex terminology used in this dynamic market? Look no further. This comprehensive guide is designed to demystify commodity trading terms and provide you with the essential knowledge to navigate the world of commodities with confidence.

What is Commodities trading?

Commodities trading involves speculating on the price movements of physical assets within the underlying market. These assets typically comprise raw materials that are mined, farmed, or extracted from the earth

Some examples of commodities that can be traded include:

  • Brent crude oil: A type of oil that serves as a benchmark for pricing other crude oils. It is widely traded and its price is influenced by factors such as global supply and demand, geopolitical events, and economic indicators.
  • Natural gas: A vital source of energy used for heating, electricity generation, and industrial purposes. Natural gas prices are influenced by factors such as weather patterns, production levels, storage levels, and global demand.
  • Gold: A precious metal often considered a safe-haven asset during times of economic uncertainty. Gold prices are influenced by factors such as inflation, currency fluctuations, geopolitical tensions, and central bank policies.
  • Soft commodities: agricultural products such as wheat, corn, soybeans, coffee, cocoa, and sugar. Prices of soft commodities can be affected by factors such as weather conditions, global supply and demand, government policies, and crop reports.

Commodity trading provides traders with the opportunity to profit from the fluctuations in commodity prices without owning the physical assets themselves. One popular method of engaging in commodity trading is through Commodity Contracts for Difference (CFDs).

Commodity CFDs allow traders to enter into contracts based on the price difference between the opening and closing prices of the commodity, without the need to buy or sell the physical asset. This means that traders can speculate on whether the price of a particular commodity, such as gold, oil, or agricultural products, will rise or fall in value.

One of the key features of trading Commodity CFDs is the availability of leverage. Leverage enables traders to control larger positions with a relatively small deposit, known as a margin. This allows traders to amplify their potential profits (but also their losses) as they are exposed to a larger value of the commodity than their initial investment. It's important to note that leveraged financial products like CFDs are complex trading instruments and should be used with caution and with a solid understanding of the risks involved.

By trading Commodity CFDs, traders can access a wide range of commodities, diversify their portfolios, and take advantage of market opportunities. However, it's essential to conduct thorough research, stay informed about market trends, and carefully manage risks when engaging in commodity trading.

Why is it important to understand commodity trading terms?

Understanding the ins and outs of your chosen market is crucial as a trader, especially when it comes to commodity trading and having a thorough knowledge of the associated terms. From contango and margin calls to spot price and hedging strategies, we'll break down these key terms, helping you gain a deeper understanding of commodities trading and make informed decisions. Whether you're a novice or experienced trader, this guide will equip you with the necessary tools to thrive in the exciting realm of commodity trading.

Here's why:

1. Informed Decision Making: Knowledge of financial terms equips traders with the context to make informed decisions and helps them with market analysis.

2. Risk Management: By comprehending the terms related to contango, margin calls, hedging strategies, and spot prices, traders can better manage their positions, protect their potential profits, and limit potential losses.

Key terminology in Commodities trading

In this section, we will explore some key terminology in commodities trading.

Let’s take a look at some of the terms:

Supply and demand

Supply and demand dynamics play a fundamental role in commodities trading. Supply refers to the quantity of a commodity available in the market, while demand represents the quantity that buyers are willing and able to purchase at various price levels. Fluctuations in supply and demand can impact commodity prices significantly. Understanding the factors that drive supply and demand, such as global economic conditions, weather patterns, and geopolitical events, is essential for making informed trading decisions.


Contango refers to a market situation where prices for future delivery are higher than prices for current or near-term delivery. It implies an upward sloping futures curve. This term is commonly used in commodities trading to describe the normal market condition where future prices are higher due to factors such as storage costs, financing charges, and market expectations.

Margin calls

Margin refers to the initial deposit a trader needs to put up to open a position. It's a small percentage of the total trade value that acts as a security against potential losses. Margin calls occur when a trader's account value falls below the required margin level set by the broker. It is a demand for additional funds to be deposited into the account to meet any ongoing margin requirements. In commodities trading, margin calls are significant as they play a crucial role in managing risk and maintaining sufficient funds in the trading account to support open positions.

Spot price

The spot price in commodities trading refers to the current, real-time market price at which the underlying commodity can be bought or sold for immediate delivery. It represents the price at which buyers and sellers agree to transact ’on the spot’.

Hedging strategies

Hedging strategies within commodities trading revolve around the art of managing potential price risks connected to owning the physical commodity or holding futures contracts. These tactical approaches are designed to cushion the impact of unfavorable price shifts by strategically incorporating multiple positions. By doing so, traders aim to safeguard their investments from the effects of adverse price movements.

Hedging involves more than just a single position; it often entails the simultaneous opening of two or more positions or modifying existing ones to counterbalance an existing or anticipated position. The primary goal is to create a harmonious balance that counteracts potential losses.

Hedging strategies are akin to a well-thought-out insurance policy, offering a safety net against the uncertainties of the market. Through the strategic use of multiple positions, traders could potentially navigate the complex landscape of commodities trading and aim to maintain a level of protection against adverse price fluctuations.

Physical delivery

Physical delivery in commodities trading refers to the actual transfer of the underlying commodity from the seller to the buyer. It occurs when a futures contract reaches its expiration date and the buyer intends to take possession of the physical commodity rather than settle the contract in cash. Physical delivery is a crucial aspect of commodities trading, particularly for participants involved in the production, processing, and consumption of the physical commodity.

Price volatility

Price volatility is a measure of how much and how rapidly the underlying commodity price may rise and fall over a specific period of time. In this way, it’s often seen as a representation of the degree of uncertainty in that market. Price volatility is influenced by various factors, including supply and demand imbalances, geopolitical events, weather patterns, and market speculation. Traders need to be aware of price volatility as it presents both opportunities and risks in commodities trading.

The material provided here has not been prepared in accordance with legal requirements designed to promote the independence of investment research and as such is considered to be a marketing communication. Whilst it is not subject to any prohibition on dealing ahead of the dissemination of investment research we will not seek to take any advantage before providing it to our clients.

Pepperstone doesn’t represent that the material provided here is accurate, current or complete, and therefore shouldn’t be relied upon as such. The information, whether from a third party or not, isn’t to be considered as a recommendation; or an offer to buy or sell; or the solicitation of an offer to buy or sell any security, financial product or instrument; or to participate in any particular trading strategy. It does not take into account readers’ financial situation or investment objectives. We advise any readers of this content to seek their own advice. Without the approval of Pepperstone, reproduction or redistribution of this information isn’t permitted.